Deux documents en anglais sur l’incidence des changements de règles sur les caractéristiques physiques des hommes et femmes pratiquant le canoë slalom.

  1. THE INCIDENCE OF RULE CHANGES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALE AND FEMALE CANOE SLALOM PADDLERS: A 14-YEAR LONGITUDINAL STUDY.
    Tremblay, J.1, Cormery, B.2,3, Frechengues, E.2, Paillard, T.2, Marcil, MM.3, Bouvard, M.3
    1: Dépt de Kinésiologie, Université de Montréal, Canada,
    2: Dept Ed Phys, Université de Pau,France,
    3: CBMS, Hôpital de Pau, France.

    Introduction
    The sport of competitive canoe slalom has greatly evolved within the last fifteen years and this brought changes in the physiological demands placed on the paddler. A reduction in boat length (4.0 to 3.5 m), race duration (~30%) and a greater number of events to reach the finals in international competition are some of the significant changes introduced after the 2000 Olympics that might have altered the athlete’s training in order to prepare for competition.
    Methods
    A total of 31 men and 22 women were studied, all were elite french canoe slalom paddlers (125 and 56 maximal tests completed, respectively). The human ethics committee of Pau’s hospital approved all procedures. All maximal tests were conducted on an ergometer adapted for seated arm cranking. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured using an automated gas analysis system during an incremental test to exhaustion. Ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) were also determined. A 6s all-out force-velocity test was used to measure maximal power (Pmax) for the upper limbs (Vandewalle, 1987). Statistical
    analyses (ANOVA) were carried out in order to determine the interaction between sex and the change in rules (since 2000) on the physiological characteristics of the paddlers (p<0.05).
    Results
    Significant main effects of “before” vs. “after” rule changes were found for maximal and submaximal O2 consumption in men, which increased by 9.9% at VT (32.5±0.8 to 36.1±0.8 mL.min-1.kg-1), 11.1% at RCP (39.2±0.7 to 44.1±0.7 mL.min-1.kg-1) and 7.6% at VO2max (48.4±0.7 to 52.4±1.1 mL.min-1.kg-1). Changes in women were only found at VT (25.9±1.3 to 28.3±1.6 mL.min-1.kg-1, 8.4%). Maximum power in the force-velocity test did not change for both men and women (1152.1±20.9 and 563±21.9 W, respectively).
    Discussion
    While force-velocity characteristics stayed constant during the last decade, the changes in boat length, competition rules and race duration since 2000 might have contributed to a modification of the physiological profile of paddlers, by generally increasing their level of fitness. It is well accepted that an increase in the volume of high-intensity training, even for short repeated bouts of a few seconds, can significantly improve fitness level (Gibala, 2008). In the present study, results might be indicative of an improvement in the general conditioning of athletes allowing them to support a greater training volume at a higher quality.
    Gibala, M. J., & McGee, S. L. (2008). Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 36(2), 58–63.
    Vandewalle, H., Peres, G., and Monod, H, (1987). Sports Med, 4(4), 268-89.
  2. Physique et canoë slalom (PDF)

Publication internationale : European College of Sport Sciences, Bruges 2012